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Understanding Sensory Processing Difference (SPD): Signs, Management, and Resources

Sensory Processing Difference (SPD) is a neurological condition that impacts the way sensory information is processed by the brain, affecting how individuals perceive and respond to their environment. This difference can significantly affect daily functioning and social interactions. It is often observed in children but can also be present in adults.

What is Sensory Processing Difference?

SPD occurs when sensory signals are either not detected or don't get organized into appropriate responses. People with SPD find it difficult to process and act upon information received through the senses, which can create challenges in performing everyday tasks. While sensory processing issues are commonly associated with other developmental disabilities, such as autism and ADHD, they can also occur independently.

Detailed Signs and Symptoms of Sensory Processing Difference

The symptoms of SPD are broadly classified into three primary categories:

1. Sensory Over-Responsivity: Individuals may exhibit extreme reactions to sensory stimulation that is typically considered normal. Signs include:

  • Distress from clothing textures or seams that are barely noticeable to others.

  • Overwhelm by everyday sounds such as vacuum cleaners or loud conversations.

  • Extreme responses to lights, such as fluorescent lights in supermarkets.

2. Sensory Under-Responsivity: Some individuals might show little or no response to stimulation. They may not react to temperatures or pain in a typical way. Signs include:

  • Failure to respond when called by name.

  • Lack of coordination and clumsiness.

  • Not noticing when touched; may seem detached or unresponsive.

3. Sensory-Seeking Behavior: A constant craving for sensory stimulation is another symptom. Individuals may:

  • Frequently touch objects and people, even when inappropriate.

  • Seek out fast or spinning movements, enjoying being in constant motion.

  • Have an unusually high tolerance for or indifference to pain.

These behaviors can lead to difficulties in academic performance, social challenges, and stress within family dynamics.

Initial Steps and Specialist Consultation

Recognizing the signs of SPD is crucial. Parents and caregivers who observe these symptoms should consult with pediatricians or primary care physicians who can refer them to specialists like neurologists or developmental pediatricians. An accurate diagnosis often involves evaluations from occupational therapists specializing in sensory integration, who use detailed assessments to identify specific sensory difficulties.

Comprehensive Management Strategies

Managing SPD involves a multifaceted approach tailored to each individual's needs, typically guided by occupational therapists. Management strategies include:

  • Individualized Occupational Therapy: Utilizes sensory integration techniques to help individuals better process and respond to sensory information.

  • Creation of a Sensory Diet: A set of personalized activities scheduled throughout the day that provides the sensory input a person needs to stay focused and organized.

  • Adaptation of Environments: Adjusting sensory triggers in environments like home or school to reduce sensory overload. This may involve using noise- canceling headphones or creating quiet spaces where individuals can retreat.

Carol Kranowitz's Insightful Contributions

Carol Kranowitz, through her seminal book "The Out-of-Sync Child," has brought SPD to greater public awareness. Her work provides not only foundational knowledge about SPD but also practical strategies for parents and teachers. She explains complex neurological processes in accessible language and offers real-world applications to help children with SPD navigate their daily lives more effectively. Furthering her advocacy, Kranowitz has written extensively on the subject, including follow-up books such as "The Out-of-Sync Child Grows Up," addressing the challenges teenagers and adults with SPD face.

Supporting Resources and Further Reading

In addition to Kranowitz's books, numerous other resources are available for those affected by SPD. Organizations such as the SPD Foundation and websites like SPD Star provide up-to-date research, support networks, and tools for managing sensory issues. Workshops, webinars, and support groups can also offer guidance and community connections for families and individuals dealing with SPD.


Sensory Processing Difference can pose unique and significant challenges, but understanding and properly managing the condition can lead to improved outcomes and quality of life. With the right support and strategies, individuals with SPD can navigate their sensory experiences successfully. Education, awareness, and resources like those provided by Carol Kranowitz are critical in empowering those affected by SPD to lead fulfilling lives.

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